This study critically examined the effects of Total Factor Productivity on rice output in Nigeria. Data for this study such as land area, labour, capital and rice output from 1961 to 2020 were collected from various sources such as World Bank online statistical depository, United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service , , . Data were analysed using descriptive such as mean and graph and inferential statistics such as Ordinary Least Square Regression model. Result from the study showed that although there is a positive trend in rice TFP in Nigeria over the years, the average rice TFP is regressive (i.e., less than 1). Furthermore, rice TFP (coefficient = 12.282; p<5%) had statistically significant effect on rice output. The study therefore recommended that promoting the adoption of modern technologies and improving management practices, policymakers can help enhance TFP and increase rice output, thereby improving food security and promoting economic development.