The growth, trend, and structural stability of agricultural production – food grains, as well as the area and yield of agricultural production reflect the contribution and stability of an economy. The objective of this research is to evaluate the growth, trend, and the structural stability of food grain production, area under cultivation, and yield per hectare in India before (1980-2000) and after the new agricultural policy (2001-2020). To accomplish the objectives, secondary data was gathered from the Handbook of statistics on the Indian economy (2020–21) by RBI. To estimate and compare the growth of production, area, and yield of the food grain, the structural stability regression model, t test, and trend line were used. According to the study, average production and yield increased by 42.54 percent and 44.23 percent, respectively, from 1980 to 2000 to 2001-2020, although the area decreased by -1.50 percent. Food grain production and yield are increasing, although the compound annual growth rates for production, area, and yield are -14.41 percent, -265.13 percent, and -28.69 percent, respectively. The study also discovered that food grain production and area under cultivation in India has a structural change over time. Increased food grain production was primarily driven by increased area, yield per hectare, and shifts in production patterns. As a result, the focus should be on expanding the area by utilizing adequate land and increasing yield through technical innovation, agricultural research, and training, as well as boosting policy implementation in India.