Cocoyam farming in Nigeria is mostly practiced at subsistence level. Farmers that produce cocoyam only produce in small quantiti and hence, limit its value chain propensity. This study examines value chain processes of cocoyam, return on investment, and factors influencing its participation. The s was carried out in Ondo state and Ekiti state, South-west, Nigeria. Primary data was collected through multistage sampling technique. A pre-test questionnaire was administered to 320 respondents. Descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis, stochastic dominance, return-on-investment and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. The ave age of cocoyam farmers is 45 years. Female cocoyam farmers (particularly married ones) engaged more on the value chain than their male counterparts by 21.4%, although, the male has a longer farming experience. A relative household size exists (mean of 6.6) and this has been used for family-labor on cocoyam production and processing. Education has been seen to influence participation in cocoyam value chain processes as 58.7% had post-primary education, 70.1% participated in value chain processes. Majority of the respondents (55%) engaged in cocoyam value chain, particularly on flour and derivatives (30.9%), livestock feeds (24%), and medicinal uses (11.3%). Cocoyam processed in all chain processes had positive ROI, while medicinal uses had a higher ROI indicating strong viability of participation in cocoyam value chain activities.