: Cocoyam farming in Nigeria is mostly practiced at subsistence level. Farmers that produce cocoyam only produce in small quantity and hence, limit its value chain propensity. This study examines value chain processes of cocoyam, return on investment, and factors influencing its participation. Study was carried out in Ondo state and Ekiti state, South-west, Nigeria. Primary data was collected through multistage sampling technique. Pre- tested questionnaire was administered on 320 respondents. Descriptive statistics, gross-margin analysis, stochastic dominance, return-on-investment and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Average age of cocoyam farmers is 45 years. Female cocoyam farmers (particularly married ones) engaged more on value chain than their male counterpart by 21.4%, although, male has a longer farming experience. A relative household size exists (mean of 6.6) and this has been used for family-labour on cocoyam production and processing. Education has been seen to influence participation in cocoyam value chain processes as 58.7% that had post-primary education, 70.1% participated in value chain processes. Majority of the respondents (55%) engaged in cocoyam value chain, particularly on flour and derivatives (30.9%), livestock feeds (24%) and into medicinal uses (11.3%). Cocoyam processed in all chain processes had positive ROI, while medicinal uses had a higher ROI indicating a strong viability of participation in cocoyam value chain activities particu.